The flawed science is compounded by evidence that the director of the project showed a consistent pattern of dishonesty and deception in his professional as well as his personal life, thereby stripping the study of the last vestige of credibility. On analysis, the Dachau hypothermia study has all the ingredients of a scientific fraud, and rejection of the data on purely scientific grounds is inevitable. Robert L.
Berger, New England Deaconness Hospital and Harvard Medical School  If you answered Yes the third time: What if using the Nazi data could set a dangerous precedent, sanctioning unethical human experiments and possibly encouraging similarly deplorable acts? A brief review of history indicates that the evil perpetrated by the Nazi doctors is one of degree, not of type.
White South African physicians falsified medical reports of blacks tortured or killed in prison. From the mids to the early s, New York University researchers infected mentally retarded children with hepatitis in order to track the course of the disease and search for a cure. In , doctors at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn, New York, injected 'live' cancer cells into 22 chronically ill and debilitated patients; they did not inform the patients that they were participating in an experiment completely unrelated to treatment of the disease for which they were hospitalized.
These cases may not be as heinous as the Nazi experiments, but if researchers cite and use results from the latter, might that not give tacit encouragement to further unethical studies using human beings? Josef Mengele's twins experiments at Auschwitz  "While using such data could save lives in some situations Judith Bellin, an Environmental Protection Agency toxicologist, about using data from Nazi phosgene experiments  If you answered Yes the fourth time: What if you knew that many feel that using the data would make us the Nazi experimenters' moral accessories?
Many hold that making use of the data wrenched so brutally from helpless victims would not only validate the Nazi doctors' unthinkable acts, but also make us the victims' "retrospective torturers" attorney Baruch Cohen and them our "retrospective guinea pigs" Dr. Harold M. Henry Beecher believed publishing unethically obtained medical data would cause a "far-reaching moral loss to medicine. That's not true. What we've done is not as evil, but it's in the ballpark. Arthur Caplan, bioethicist now at the University of Pennsylvania, commenting about uproar surrounding physiologist Robert Pozos' proposed use of Nazi data on hypothermia  "The conduct of Nazi physician-scientists was barbarous, revolting, monstrous, devoid of any decency.
Their research defiled human beings, medicine, science, and humanity. They dragged through bloody mud an honorable profession to which contemporary physician-scientists who now wish to make use of these results belong. They are like vultures waiting for the corpses to cool so they could devour every consummable part. To use the Nazi data is obscene and sick.
One can always rationalize that it would save human lives; the question should be asked, at what cost? Josef Mengele's twins experiments at Auschwitz  "We must not add our numbers to the multitudes of onlookers who slept peacefully through the nights of anguished cries while dreaming their sweet dreams of a better tomorrow. Willard Gaylin, psychiatrist and former president of The Hastings Center, a biomedical ethics thinktank  If you answered Yes the fifth time: What if you knew that many survivors of the Nazi experiments feel strongly that the data should never be used?
Among the small minority of those experimented upon who survived to bring shocking details of the atrocities to the outside world are a vocal group who would consign the data to oblivion. Many make the same arguments that modern doctors and scientists opposed to the data's use make, namely, that using the information would legitimize the Nazi experimenters and their damnable undertakings, make us moral accomplices, further demean the victims, etc.
Responses from survivors asked whether the data should be used ranged from the calm and reasoned to the incredulous: "No! I we suffered, and it is no 'medical data' or 'information' whatsoever!!! If I would agree, I feel I [would] give a stamp of approval to the ways and means [these] experiments have been conducted and quasi-legalize [them]. He too is saying first and foremost, 'for the sake of science' and for the sake of 'progress,' ignoring the case for humanity.
Just three years old when she arrived at Auschwitz, Vigorito spent a year in a wooden cage a yard and a half wide with her twin sister, who died from repeated injections to her spinal column  "In the case of the Mengele Twins, copies of the data should be given to those twins who are still alive. The data of the victims who are dead should be shredded and placed in a transparent monument, as evidence that they exist but cannot be used.
It should be a lesson to the world that human dignity and human life are more important than any advance in science and medicine. Josef Mengele's twins experiments at Auschwitz  "I consider it inexcusable to dignify those murderers with the word 'scientist' or dignify what they did with the word 'research' The data should be thrown to the winds and forgotten.
Obviously, the hundreds who died at the hands of Nazi death-camp doctors cannot tell their story of unfathomable fear, unbearable pain, and senseless death. One must rely on those who survived and those who witnessed the execrable atrocities that occurred in the concentration camps. Here is some of that testimony: "The third experiment It was a continuous experiment without oxygen at a [simulated] height of 12 kilometers [39, feet] conducted on a year-old Jew in good general condition.
Breathing continued up to 30 minutes.
After four minutes the experimental subject began to perspire and wiggle his head, after five minutes cramps occurred, between six and ten minutes breathing increased in speed and the experimental subject became unconscious; from 11 to 30 minutes breathing slowed down to three breaths per minute, finally stopping altogether.
Sigmund Rascher to Heinrich Himmler dated April 5, concerning his high-altitude experiments on prisoners at Dachau concentration camp  "Fifteen girls aged 17 to 18 years old. The girls who survived the following operations are in German hands and little is known about them.
The subjects were placed in an ultra-short-wave field.
One electrode was placed on the abdomen and another on the vulva. The rays were focused on the ovaries. The ovaries were consequently burned up. Owing to faulty doses several had serious burns of the abdomen and vulva. One died as a result of these burns alone. The others were sent to another concentration camp where some were put in hospital and others made to work.
After a month they returned to Auschwitz where control operations were performed. Sagittal and transverse sections of the ovaries were made.
viptarif.ru/wp-content/phone/1289.php The girls altered entirely owing to hormonal changes. They looked just like old women. Often they were laid up for months owing to the wounds of the operations becoming septic. Several died as a result of sepsis. Two Russian officers were brought from the prison barracks. Rascher had them stripped and they had to go into the vat naked. Hour after hour went by, and whereas usually unconsciousness from the cold set in after 60 minutes at the latest, the two men in this case still responded fully after two and a half hours.
All appeals to Rascher to put them to sleep by injection were fruitless.
After the third hour one of the Russians said to the other, 'Comrade, please tell the officer to shoot us. The two shook hands with a 'Farewell, Comrade' These words were translated to Rascher by a young Pole, though in a somewhat different form. Rascher went to his office.
The young Pole at once tried to chloroform the two victims, but Rascher came back at once, threatening us with his gun Children of Bullenhuser Damm, The. In memory of the 20 Jewish children who were human guinea-pigs in Nazi medical experiments. Holocaust Essays: The Doctors of the Holocaust.
Essay which examines the involvement and actions of Nazi doctors during the Holocaust. Essay from the Jewish Virtual Library. Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine —. Includes brief descriptions of various experiments. Children of the Holocaust. Print resources for Holocaust research —located in media center. Reference Sources. REF The Holocaust. Ref Introduction Michael A. Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3.
Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 7. Chapter 8.