In the months after slot controls were introduced, the average arrival delay at EWR actually increased by 7 minutes. Further, the length of Delta's departure banks high-volume periods of departing flights decreased by about 2 minutes at JFK while the scheduled time of EWR flights decreased by 1. These findings are consistent with Ater , who suggested that policies aimed at reducing congestion at highly concentrated airports will only have a limited impact because dominant airlines already internalize congestion. The results highlight the need for policymakers to carefully consider how the allocation of airport slots will impact flight scheduling decisions when implementing similar policies in the future.
This dissertation is the cumulative work towards the development of bioactive hydrogel nanoparticles by way of DNA incorporation. First, a collection of orthogonal DNA sequences is fabricated and binding coefficients quantified via surface plasmon resonance imaging SPRI. Then, using a sample sequence from the collection, the DNA is polymerized into the backbone of hydrogel nanoparticles HNPs to be characterized by single-nanoparticle SPRI microscopy as surface adsorption measurements to gold thin-films. Background: Health concerns surrounding the herbicide, glyphosate, have increased recently due to its widespread use in agriculture and lack of regular surveillance programs in the food supply.
Thus, understanding organic food consumer profiles is crucial. Objective: To identify demographic, health-related, and diet-related factors associated with organic food consumption and to determine the association between self-reported organic food consumption frequency and urinary glyphosate levels. Method: women in Orange County were ranked into three groups based on their self-reported frequency of organic food consumption.
Factors associated with frequency of organic food consumption, and urinary glyphosate levels across groups were analyzed. Results: Self-reported organic food consumption frequency was associated with education, BMI, and healthy diet. We found highest urinary glyphosate levels in the sometime organic food consumers among the three groups, but it was not statistically different. However, grain intake was positively associated with glyphosate levels in infrequent organic food consumers.
Conclusion: The organic food consumer characteristics we observed were consistent with previous findings, and must be considered as confounders when studying the potential health effects of organic food consumption. We observed associations between urinary glyphosate levels and the diet, but our study findings should be confirmed in a larger population. This research explores devised theatre approaches in efforts to teach and enhance the skills for contemporary modern dance students to participate in a collaborative, cross disciplinary style of performance making.
Devised theatre is a contemporary theatre approach which derived from a desire to create collaboratively designed theatre and to challenge the hierarchal western theatre traditions. Collaborative approaches to theatre and dance can be traced throughout the twentieth century, with roots to post-modern dance and feminist collective theatre movements. The training of many contemporary modern dance students is often focused on the traditional solo artists paradigm, with little emphasis on creative collaboration, although many professional contemporary choreographers do create work within a collaborative construct.
As theatre, dance, and the visual arts continue to traverse and intersect with each other, practitioners grow increasingly more interested in working in a collaborative, cross disciplinary process. Investigating my own choreographic interests to create dance theatre works, I used devised theatre methods in my process to help develop skills necessary for this style of performance. Through a four-month rehearsal process, six undergraduate dance students, one university staff member, and I embarked on a collaborative creative process to create an original devised dance theatre work, based on the short story, The Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
This process-based research resulted in a performance at the Experimental Performance Laboratory Theater at the University of California, Irvine in April of This dissertation examines how sex education mandates affect teenage sexual behaviors and health, how an introduction of a paid parental leave scheme affects maternal labor market outcomes, and how school-level technology investment impacts student achievement. The data used for this dissertation include publicly available student-level data, confidential micro-data from the Australian government, and publicly available school-level data from the California Department of Education.
The empirical methods used in this dissertation include difference-in-difference models, and regression discontinuity models. In the first chapter, I show that state-mandated school-based sex education has no significant impact on teenage sexual behaviors, gonorrhea rates, or birth rates.
In the second chapter, I develop theoretical predictions of the impact of an introduction of a paid parental leave scheme on maternal labor market outcomes in Australia, and empirically test these predictions. In the third chapter, I examine the impact of school-level technology investment on student achievement in California, and find positive effects on English test scores. I find that the effects are largest for middle schoolers, and are concentrated among the low- socioeconomic students, suggesting that technology investment can help narrow the income achievement gap.
Aerosols are composed of solid or liquid particles and the gases they are suspended in. Primary aerosols are directly emitted and secondary organic aerosols SOA are formed in the atmosphere from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds VOCs.
The molecular composition of aerosol particles determines their optical properties, and affects the radiation balance of the Earth. Organic aerosol particles largely scatter solar radiation, however, there is a subset of organic particles called brown carbon BrC that absorb near-ultraviolet and visible radiation from the sun.
Also, adverse effects on human health from exposure to aerosols are related to their molecular composition.
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The molecular composition of aerosol particles can also change during atmospheric transport, for example, due to the effects of sunlight and water vapor; and this makes the optical properties and human health effects of aerosols even harder to predict. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the composition of smoke from biomass-burning cookstoves in rural India. This was done for two fuel types wood and dung , as well as two stoves that are common to the area, the chulha and angithi. The major finding was that dung fuels and angithi cookstoves significantly increase the EFs for most VOCs. In Chapter 3, the molecular composition of smoke particles are characterized using high resolution mass spectrometry techniques.
We observed that particles produced from dung-burning cookstoves were more complex in terms of numbers of components , and contained a higher fraction of nitrogen-containing molecules by mass abundance. Then, we estimate lifetimes of individual BrC chromophores as well as bulk BrC absorbance.
We find that BrC absorption has lifetimes of 10 to 41 days due to photochemical aging. The molecular composition of BrC chromophores were determined, all of which were organosulfates. Chapter 6 explores the effect of water vapor and aerosol liquid water on the molecular composition of SOA, as it is formed and chemically aged. These results provide key inputs to air quality models to more accurately predict regional climate; including EFs for Indian cookstoves and lifetimes of BrC in biomass burning organic aerosol.
Other observations regarding secondary BrC formation in CCN mimics and hydrolysis reactions occurring in model SOA further our understanding of the evolution and chemical processing of atmospheric aerosols.
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