Crop circles research paper

Crop Circles

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Gail The image in the center of the paper depicts a small, devilish creature with a scythe, mowing two rectangular, offset circles. Modern circles form themselves in anything that will take imprint, typically in fields of oats, barley, or corn. Many people believe that they are works of art, while some believe they are an act of vandalism. But who, or what, are forming these beautiful patterns? Some say they are natural, created by the …show more content…. Others believe that they are created as messages for the human race by a species indigenous to earth, namely trolls, gnomes, and fairies, even though there is no real evidence to support this.

The Math and Science of Crop Circles

Contrary to these ideas, however, extraterrestrial life may be the most probable answer. There is even evidence of out there of these vandals with websites such as circlemakers.

Interestingly enough, it is easy to distinguish a hoaxed circle from a genuine one. To start, all genuine circles have a degree deformation at the stem node of all of the plants in the. Crop rings produced by fungi may have inspired such tales since folklore holds these rings are created by dancing wolves or fairies.

Meaden London: Souvenir Press. The storms about this part of Surrey have been lately local and violent, and the effects produced in some instances curious. Visiting a neighbour's farm on Wednesday evening 21st , we found a field of standing wheat considerably knocked about, not as an entirety, but in patches forming, as viewed from a distance, circular spots I could not trace locally any circumstances accounting for the peculiar forms of the patches in the field, nor indicating whether it was wind or rain, or both combined, which had caused them, beyond the general evidence everywhere of heavy rainfall.

They were suggestive to me of some cyclonic wind action, and may perhaps have been noticed elsewhere by some of your readers. In the adjoining wheatfields were other features, taking the form of circular or elliptical areas in which the wheat had been flattened. I saw these myself; they had not been much visited, and were certainly peculiar One, very well-defined, was an oval 15 yards long by 41 broad. There was evidence of "spiral flattening", and in one case there was a circular area in the centre in which the wheat had not been flattened.

In no case was there any evidence of an actual depression in the ground.

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Since the areas of flattened wheat "led" to the crater, it looks very much as though they, and the crater, were caused by something which came from the sky. In this case, the wheat would have been flattened by violent air-currents produced by the falling body. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 October For the album by Dean Brody, see Crop Circles album.

For the irrigation method that produces circular fields of crops, see center pivot irrigation. Pattern in a crop field. He has since made a name for himself creating crop circles for TV companies and commercial firms At the height of the debate, though, no less a physicist than Stephen Hawking was prepared to accept some version of Meaden's theory.

Paranormal goes mainstream and scientific

Free crop circles papers, essays, and research papers. Abstract—Three papers published by W. C. Levengood (), W. C. . researchers have subsequently admitted that crop circle hoaxing is rife. These samples.

When a spate of circles appeared in the countryside near his Cambridge home in , Hawking told a local newspaper that "crop circles are either hoaxes or formed by vortex movement of air" [63]. Oxford Dictionaries - English. Phanes Press, Science and Nonbelief. Prometheus Books. Crop circles—elaborate patterns that appear on fields overnight—appear to be of this sort. Many crop circle makers have come forth or have been exposed.

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We know a great deal about their various techniques. So we do not need to find the perpetrator of every crop circle to figure out that probably they all are human made. Many true believers remain who continue to think there is something paranormal—perhaps alien—about crop circles. But the circles we know all fall within the range of the sort of thing done in hoaxes. Nothing stands out as extraordinary. The Sociological Review. Wiley Online Library. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books, Crop Cirles.

Crop Circles

In Michael Shermer Ed. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Geography Online. Southern Illinois University. Schmidt 10 September New York Times.

Dr. John Horn, M.D., submitted this paper to CCRF. THANK YOU, Dr. Horn, for this contribution!

Feature: Crop circles. Physics World. Spatial distribution of England's crop circles PDF. Edith Cowan University. Progress in European Ethnology illustrated ed. Ashgate Publishing. Skeptics SA.

Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 1 January The Demon-Haunted World. Headline Publishing Group. National Geographic. Retrieved 28 October The Natural History of Stafford-Shire. Archived from the original on 2 April Accounts of Books. Philosophical Transactions. Bibcode : Natur.. Retrieved from "Nature archive for the decade —". Retrieved 23 August Republished in "A case of genuine crop circles dating from July — as published in Nature in the year ".

Journal of Meteorology. January At Library and Archives Canada. Original in French. The Scotsman.

Special Crop Circles: Balls of Light at Hoeven?

Archived from the original on 11 June In The Anomalist , Vol. Wood Fortean Times. For me, some of the most compelling evidence for a non-human origin of crop circle formations exists in the mathematical and geometric analysis. In the early s, Gerald Hawkins, then professor of mathematics and astronomy at Boston University was challenged to prove or disprove the human origin of crop circle formations. Their proportions to each other were equivalent to the ratios of frequencies of the adjacent white keys of a piano keyboard.

Such a result could certainly not occur by chance. It seems extremely unlikely that human hoaxers would have encoded such hidden mathematical proportions in a hastily produced crop circle formation over a few hour period in the dark of night.

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Hawkins was astonished by this finding. He began a more in depth analysis of formations and ultimately discovered five new theorems of Euclidean geometry which had never before been published in any textbooks of geometry, ancient or modern!